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Troubleshooting Build Errors

Learn how to resolve common scenarios you may encounter during the Build step, including build errors that cancel a deployment and long build times.
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You can troubleshoot build errors that occur during the Build step of your deployment to Vercel. This guide will help you understand how to investigate build failures and long build times.

You can use the following views on your dashboard to troubleshoot a build:

  • Build logs - the console output when your deployment is building which can be found under the Deployment Status section of the Project's Deployment page
  • Source tab - the output of the build after the deployment is successful. This can also be accessed by appending /_src to the Deployment URL
  • Functions tab - the live console output for Serverless Functions at runtime (if your project uses this feature). This can also be accessed by appending /_logs to the Deployment URL

You can navigate to these views from the Deployment page by clicking on the Source tab, the Functions tab or the Building accordion as shown below.

Access Functions and Building Logs view from the Deployment page.
Access Functions and Building Logs view from the Deployment page.

If your build fails, Vercel will report the error message on the Deployments page so that you can investigate and fix the underlying issue.

In the following we show you how to look up the error message of your failed build.

Build logs provide you with an insight into what happened during the build of a deployment and can be accessed by:

  1. From your Vercel dashboard, select the project and then the Deployments tab

  2. Select the deployment. When there are build issues you will notice an error status next to deployment name

    Error status on the Deployments tab.
    Error status on the Deployments tab.
  3. On the errored deployment's page, you will see a summary of the error in the preview section. In the Deployment Details section, expand the Building accordion to expand the logs. There are situations where build logs are not available, in this scenario the error will be presented in the UI instead.

  4. Scroll down in the build logs until you find a red section where the keyword "Error" is mentioned. It can be mentioned once or multiple times. In many cases, the last mention is not indicative like in the example below where it says yarn run build exited with 1. If you look a few lines above, you will see an additional error which in this case indicates where the problem is with a link for more details. Sometimes, an error may not be mentioned in the lines above but the output will often help you identify where the problem is.

    Error in the logs of the Building accordion.
    Error in the logs of the Building accordion.

It is recommended to build your project on your local machine first (the build command varies per project) before deploying on Vercel. This will catch issues specific to your code or to your project's dependencies. In the example above, when the command npm run build (that runs next build) is run in the local console for a Next.js project, the error happens after building locally.

Error in local console.
Error in local console.

Builds can fail without providing any build logs when Vercel detects a missing precondition that prevents a build from starting. For example:

In this case, you cannot access the Building accordion described above, and instead, Vercel will present an overlay that contains the error message.

Build logs not available for a deployment.
Build logs not available for a deployment.

Sometimes, your Deployment Build can hit platform limits so that the build will be cancelled and throw a corresponding error that will be shown in the Build logs. Review the limits below in case you run into them.

Every Build is provided with the following resources:

Memory8192 MB8192 MBCustom
Disk space13 GB13 GBCustom

For Hobby and Pro customers, these limits are fixed, but Enterprise customers can purchase enhanced builds with larger memory and storage. Exceeding the memory or disk space allocations limits cancels the build and triggers a system report in your Build logs, identifying memory and disk space issues.

By default, the system generates this report only when it detects a problem. To receive a report for every deployment, set VERCEL_BUILD_SYSTEM_REPORT=1 as an environment variable.

This report helps you detect hidden Out of Memory (OOM) events, and provides insights into disk usage by breaking down the sizes of your source code, node_modules, and output, and flagging files over 100 MB. The input size in the report corresponds to the size of your checked-out repository or files uploaded by CLI. The node_modules size represents the total size of all node_modules folders on disk.

Memory8192 MBFixed memory allocation. Builds exceeding this limit will be cancelled
CPUs4Number of CPUs allocated for build processing
Disk Space13 GBFixed disk space allocation. Builds exceeding this limit will be cancelled
System ReportConditionalGenerated in Build logs when memory or disk space limits are reached. Available by default
Forced ReportingOptionalSet VERCEL_BUILD_SYSTEM_REPORT=1 as an environment variable to enable reporting for all builds

Review the below steps to help navigate this situation:

  • Review what package the error is related to and explore the package's documentation to see if the memory allocation can be customized with an install or Build command
  • If no package is specified, look into reducing the amount of JavaScript that your Project might be using or find a more efficient JavaScript bundler
  • Review what you are importing in your code such as third-party services, icons and media files

The total build duration is shown on the Vercel Dashboard and includes all three steps: building, checking, and assigning domains. Each step also shows the individual duration.

A Build can last for a maximum of 45 minutes. If the build exceeds this time, the deployment will be canceled and the error will be shown on the Deployment's Build logs. If you run into this limit, review this guide that explains how to reduce the Build time with a Next.js Project.

The maximum size of the Build's cache is 1 GB. It is retained for one month and it applies at the level of each Build cache key.

It is not possible to manually configure which files are cached at this time.

You may come across the following Build-specific errors when deploying your Project. The link for each error provides possible causes of the error that can help you troubleshoot.

A 'module not found' error is a syntax error that will appear at build time. This error appears when the static import statement cannot find the file at the declared path. For more information, see How do I resolve a 'module not found' error?

The first Build in a Project will take longer as the Build cache is initially empty. Subsequent builds that have the same Build cache key will take less time because elements from your build, such as framework files and node modules, will be reused from the available cache. The next sections will describe the factors that affect the Build cache to help you decrease the Build time

Vercel caches files based on the Framework Preset selected in your Project settings. The following files are cached in addition to node_modules/**, yarn.lock, and package-lock.json.

FrameworkCache Pattern

Note that the framework detection is dependent on the preset selection made in the Build settings. You should make sure that the correct framework is set for your project for optimum build caching.

At the beginning of each build, the previous Build's cache is restored prior to the Install Command or Build command executing. Each deployment is associated with a unique Build cache key that is derived from the combination of the following data:

Let's say that under your account MyTeam, you have a project MySite that is connected to your Git repository MyCode on the main branch for the production environment. When you make a commit to the main branch for the first time, you trigger a build that creates a production deployment with a new unique cache key. For any new commits to the main branch of MyCode, the existing Build cache is used as long as MySite is under MyTeam.

If you create a new Git branch in MyCode and make a commit to it, there is no cache for that specific branch. In this case, the last production Deployment cache is used to create a preview deployment and a new branch cache is created for subsequent commits to the new branch.

If you use Serverless Functions to process HTTP requests in your project, each Serverless Function is built separately in the Build step and has its own cache, based on the Runtime used. Therefore, the number and size of Serverless Functions will affect your Build time. For Next.js projects, Serverless Functions are bundled to optimize Build resources as described here.

At the end of each Build step, successful builds will update the cache and failed builds will not modify the existing cache.

Since development dependencies (for example, packages such as webpack or Babel) are not needed in production, you may want to prevent them from being installed when deploying to Vercel to reduce the Build time. To skip development dependencies, customize the Install Command to be npm install --only=production or yarn install --production.

Sometimes, you may not want to use the Build cache for a specific deployment. You can invalidate or delete the existing Build cache in the following ways:

  • Use the Redeploy button for the specific deployment in the Project's Deployments page. In the popup window that follows, leave the checkbox Use existing Build Cache unchecked. See Redeploying a project for more information.
  • Use vercel --force with Vercel CLI to build and deploy the project without the Build cache
  • Use an Environment Variable VERCEL_FORCE_NO_BUILD_CACHE with a value of 1 on your project to skip the Build cache
  • Use an Environment Variable TURBO_FORCE with a value of true on your project to skip Turborepo Remote Cache
  • Use the forceNew optional query parameter with a value of 1 when creating a new deployment with the Vercel API to skip the Build cache

When redeploying without the existing Build Cache, the Remote Cache from Turborepo and Nx are automatically excluded.

Last updated on June 13, 2024